One of the major factors militating against the development of sports in Nigeria today is lack of effective management. A great deal of solutions are being proffered by concerned and patriotic Nigerians daily to bail us out the quagmire. One of such solutions is this text entitled “Modern Trends in Sports Administration and Management”. It really is compiled by Dr. Joseph Awoyinfa, a lecturer in the Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Lagos, Nigeria; a researcher and educational consultant. I was the individual invited by the author and the university to examine the book when it had been presented to the general public on December 4, 2008 in Nigeria.
According to Awoyinfa, it is a truism around the globe that sport is currently a reference issue that may no longer be ignored at various sectors of the economy and spheres of life. The author adds that this text thus takes a critical look at topical issues in sports administration and management, dwelling on theories and principles of modern trends in sports administration and management such as leadership, organisation, planning, motivation, etc.
The text contains 16 chapters. Chapter firstrowsports one is christened “the concept of sports management”. Here, Awoyinfa says management is really a concept that implies various things to different people at different times, thus leading to its multiplicity of definitions. He explains that management has been variously described as an art, a science, an individual or people, a discipline and a process.
This author expatiates that as an art, sports management is all about carrying out sports organisational functions and tasks through people; while as a science, sports management is about establishing sports philosophy, laws, theories, principles, processes and practices. Being an organisation, in accordance with him, sports management means a means of fabricating formal structures and an establishment based on a mission, objectives, targets, functions and tasks.
Awoyinfa says as an individual or group of people, sports management may make reference to the head alone or even to all of the senior staff, committee, etc.; while as a discipline, management is a field of study with various subjects and topics. The author illuminates that sports management as an activity is about a systematic method of doing things. Awoyinfa highlights management functions in sports administration as planning, organising, staffing, directing/leading, controlling, coordination, budgeting and evaluation. On whom a sports manager is, this author educates a sports manager is anyone at any degree of sport organisation who directs
the efforts of other people towards the achievement of organisational goals sport-wise.
Chapter two is based on the subject matter of evolution and trends of sports management thought. Here, Awoyinfa discloses that the development of thoughts on sports management dates back to the times when people first attemptedto accomplish goals by working together in a group. In his words, “There was serious thinking and theorising about managing a long time prior to the dawn of the twentieth (20th) century, which marked the beginning of modern sports management thought. Major efforts to develop theories and principles of sports management began from the first twentieth (20th) century with the task of Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol. The industrial revolution of the nineteenth (19th) century probably provided the climate for this very serious theorising.”
Awoyinfa adds that since the turn of the 20th century, writers on sports management and business theory have been propounding different theories about how exactly to manage work and personnel better and effectively. This author educates that the three main schools of management thought are: the classical; the human-behavioural; and the integrative. Awoyinfa also highlights early sports management theorists; principles and characteristics of scientific management; appraisal of the scientific management theory, etc., in this chapter.
Chapter three is thematically labelled “principles of sports management”. In this chapter, the educational consultant explains that sports principles will be the basic laws on which the practice of sports management is made. He adds that management principles must therefore be based on general terms to allow them to be applicable within sport organisations of varying sizes and character. “Modern sports managers and administrators are expected to identify and use appropriate principles that are relevant to particular situations. This is because no single principle can suit all administrative situations,” submits Awoyinfa.
He says the fundamental principles of sports are those applicable to all or any sports organisations and as a result of their general acceptability, they are sometimes known as “universal principles of sports management”. This author expatiates that many of these principles are: responsibility; delegation of authority and communication. In regards to humanitarian principles of sports management, Awoyinfa identifies these as democracy, justice, human relations, sympathy, empathy, consideration and humility.
In chapter four based on the idea of behavioural and motivational theories in sports organisation, the writer says humans are unique creatures as they behave differently under different conditions and are mostly difficult to predict. Awoyinfa stresses that since human beings constitute the most important aspect in sports organisation, sports managers need some knowledge of why people behave in one way or the other, so they (sports managers) can influence visitors to perform exactly the way sports organisations find desirable.
One potent instrument this author suggests that may be used to elicit performance in athletes is motivation. In his words, “Motivation is something needed in sports organisations to create employees perform.
However, it has been an important and a puzzling subject for sports managers.” Awoyinfa further discusses development of motivational concepts in sports organisation; application of motivational theories to sports management; ways of behaviour modification, etc., in this chapter.